Thursday, 4 June 2015

Corruptions Going Hidden Beneath Political Mud Slashes

Good governance is the theme of previous election that resulted in a new government, which I consider, is a crucial technical deficiency in the system of governance. What the masses wanted was to search for corruption and punish the culprits. When spoken about corruption, road projects that were spearheaded by the previous regime came under surveillance. A common allegation was while road projects have had consistently positive development results, fraud, corruption, and collusion plagued the entire sector chaotically. From high ranking officials diverting funds, a known fact is that corruption took place in contracting firms offering bribes for new jobs and technical officers approving bills on a commission. The removal of National Procurement agency itself is evident in the early start of this bad governance. With the disbandment of this agency, the state projects never wanted to abide by then the procurement guidelines. ICTAD national contractor registration scheme also became unimportant. On one side, this paved the way towards extortion where some ministers were heard of taking 10 to 15 percent of the awarded contract prices as ‘bribes’. Though the devastating impacts include increased project costs, we find no criminal prosecution, fines, or blacklisting so far in the pursuit of good governance.

It is imperative at this juncture to clarify some of the key issues surrounding the road projects before we talk about corruption. From a technical point of view, cost is one of the key variables throughout the project management life cycle regarded as the driving force of project success. Despite its proven importance, it is common to see a construction project failing to achieve with the cost parameters. Cost variation is a very frequent phenomenon almost associated with nearly constructing roads including highways. Due to many reasons, the total cost of a project can significantly vary from the initial estimated cost. When said, cost as a concept may encompass not only the cost on physical construction. It also includes initial professional disbursements on feasibility studies, architectural and engineering services, quantity surveying and management services. It may even be inclusive of compensation to the masses affected by the project and costs on the delivery of local government authority services. At glance, the reasons could be changes basically in the original scope of work or changes in the quality, performance and workmanship otherwise desired at the beginning. Variation orders are created when changes occur and when they are raised; they bring several negative effects to both the client and the contractor. More particularly, the magnitude of these variations varies considerably from project to project. Hence, variations orders bear great importance right from the inception to completion.

Case studies have revealed that the causes in the local context differ from those in the international context. Of them the poor estimation is the most dominant. Estimation involves guesswork, thumb rules and technical and economic assumptions that warrant some scientific approach. For example, without adequate investigations, the actual requirements may not be capable of precisely articulating. Further, clients do not have in their in-house teams capable professionals to carry out estimating. Therefore, the tendency is to under estimate the project resulting in subsequent cost overrun when the actual eventualities are dealt with.

Arguably, variation orders may be seen as counter to the principle of waste reduction. The more the variation orders implant on a project, the greater the likelihood that they become time consuming, costly and disputed. When a variation order occurred, the contractor tends to charge higher rates for variation items which in turn affect the client’s budgetary arrangement. If the variations are unavoidable, at least, their impact on the budget must be minimised.  However, factors influencing the occurrence of variation orders and their adverse impact on project performance again vary from one project to another. Factors include the nature of work, the complexity of the project, and the procurement method. Though it is likely that variation orders cannot be avoided completely, they can be minimized or prevented, as stated, if their origin and causes can be known. In nutshell, the successful execution of construction projects and keeping them within the estimated cost and prescribed schedules depend on methodology that requires sound engineering judgment.

Let us now look at the ways in which corruption can take place in the supply chain. Corruption can occur where decision takers choose a project primarily for their own illicit profit. This may occur, for example, where an airport project is commissioned when it is not necessarily a national priority. Also, a power project could be approved while imposing tariffs far in excess of the population’s ability to pay back. In project financing, corruption can occur where project owner or funding agency corruptly secures a financing arrangement for the project, by way of bribery or fraud. For example, a bank may pay a bribe to a senior official of the project owner, possibly through an agent, in return for the bank being awarded the contract to finance the project at enhanced interest rates. A representative of the funder may be entitled to a performance bonus if a funding transaction is completed. In order to ensure that he receives bonus, he may conceal adverse project data which would have prevented the funder’s board from approving the contract. Further, the project owner may pay a bribe to the funder’s consultant to issue an engineering report which conceals adverse site, social or environmental data in relation to the project. The funder may then make a decision on the viability of the project on the basis of false advice.

In planning and design, the project owner may bribe a local authority official in order to obtain planning permission. A government official may extort bribes as a condition of his approval of the project, for example, he may require cash payment, shares in the project owner, or the use of his own company to provide construction services or supplies to the project owner. On the other hand, a bidder may bribe the consulting engineer to specify a design which improperly favours that bidder over the others. For example, a certain technology which is only possessed by one of the bidders may be specified, even though other technologies may be preferable or cheaper. This would normally result in those bidders who do not possess the specified technology being kept off the pre-qualification list, or being rejected as non-compliant at tender stage. A tenderer may make a donation to the ruling political party, in return for which a party official ensures that the tenderer wins a contract, or obtains a preferential treatment. Unfortunately, the politician’s acumen on these aspects has now been found to be none other than mud slashes.

During the execution, a bidder may have bribed the project owner’s representative to persuade him to award the contract to the bidder. These two parties may also have agreed that the cost of the bribe would not be included in the tender price, but would be fraudulently included in the cost claimed for a large variation during execution of the project. Deferring recovery of the cost of a bribe until after the appointment of the contractor can be an effective means of concealment, since there is normally no competitive tender for variations, and post-contract award variations attract much less scrutiny and publicity. A contractor may bribe the project owner’s representative to persuade him to issue an unnecessary variation which materially increases the contractor’s scope of work and which has an inflated price. A contractor may bribe the engineer to persuade him to issue an extension of time to the contractor, which is not properly due. A contractor may bribe the project owner’s quantity surveyor to persuade him to approve the interim bills. A contractor may bribe the project owner’s works inspector to persuade him to approve defective or non-existent work. Conversely, contractors may agree with contract administrators to account for off-site materials which are not properly designated and set aside for the project in question. They may also offer bribes to facilitate approval of claims for additional money, or time where such claims are not properly justified. I again say, unfortunately, the politician’s acumen on these aspects has now been found to be none other than mud slashes.

At the end, corruption is concealed to try to avoid detection and prosecution. For example, a bribe paid to have an inflated contract claim approved must remain secret otherwise the contract claim will be rejected. A bribe paid to secure planning permission must remain secret otherwise the planning approval will be set aside. The payment of a bribe may be made direct by the payer to the ultimate recipient who executed the dishonest act. However, it is common for a bribe to be paid through intermediaries, so as to make it more difficult to detect that a bribe has been paid. A company bidding for a contract which wishes to hide the payment of a bribe may appoint an agent who has contacts with a representative of the project owner or with the government of the country concerned. The company will enter into an agency agreement with the agent which purports to be an agreement for legitimate services. However, the scope of those services will often be false or exaggerated and the size of the payment due under the agreement will often be significantly in excess of the value of the legitimate services specified in the agreement. The payment may sometimes be expressed as a percentage of the contract price and the agent will normally receive the payment when the company is awarded the contract. The agent may then pass the whole or part of the payment to the representative of the project owner or government who has dishonestly ensured that the company would win the contract. The payment is often made in foreign currency into an offshore bank account. I reiterate, unfortunately, the politician’s acumen on these aspects has now been found to be none other than mud slashes.

Coupled with the deliberate failure to act on these charges against the ministers and state officials and their cronies, a question arises as to why the general public should shoulder these pains any longer. While corruption is very difficult to trace mainly because the involved parties only deal with hard cash, it has become a ‘technical’ cancer not easily detectable. It is more and more arduous, if not impossible, when it is connected with the supply and demand side of the construction means, processes and procedures. The most pathetic situation is that, with the political mud slashes, the real culprit goes unattended by the law enforcement agencies in the country.



Monday, 12 January 2015

Strategic direction of construction steering

bÈlsÍï kshdukh fldhsngo@


kj bÈlsÍï l¾udka; ixj¾Ok mk; yryd bÈlsÍï fËA;%fha m%j¾Okh" iqNisoaêh" kshdukh yd rdcH ueosy;Aùu fjkqfjka ksYaÑ; n,dêldrhla ia:dms; ùug kshñ;h' th bÈlsÍï l¾udka; ixj¾Ok wêldßh f,i y÷kajhs' ta iu.u fï olajd ;snQ bÈlsÍï mqyqKq lsÍfï yd ixj¾Ok wdh;kh ^blagdâ wdh;kh& wfydais fjhs' Bg Ndr ù ;snQ fndfyda oE leá fldg .;a úg th bÈlsÍï kshdukh f,i yeoskaùu idOdrKh' wkqlñgq" lñgq" kshduk lñgq" wOHË uKAv,h jYfhka úfYAI{;djh" ksfhdAckh" ks¾foaYh" wkque;sh ,en flfrk bÈlsÍï kshdukh yryd .=Kd;aul núka jvd;a Wiia bÈlsÍï ixialD;shla n,dfmdfrd;a;= úh' m%ñ;sh iïnkaOfhka msßú;r y÷kajd §u" foaYk" iïuka;%K yd mqyqKq mdGud,d meje;aùu" blAgdâ ñ, iQ;%hg wod< jQ Wmfoia iemhSu yd w¾:l:kh" wdrjq,a úi£u fukau cd;sl uÜgñka fldka;%d;alrejka j¾.SlrKh" cd;sl m%iïmdokh ms<sn| Wmfoia iemhSu" meñKs,s úNd. lsÍu" iïudk m%Þkh hkd§ fï ish,a,u oekgu;a ;sfnk tAjdh' fï i|yd Ndú;d lrk fuj,ï w;r iïu; m%ñ;Ska" msßú;r" ñkqïl%u" .súiqï fldkafoais" m%iïmdok l%fudamdhka fukau mqyqKqj" iudf,dapkh" ;dCIK ú.Kkh" miq úmrïo we;=,;a fjhs' th hym;a jev ixialD;shl wä;d,uhs' t;rï wêldß n,hla fkd;snqK o fndfyda fokd tA u; hefmkakg jQfha ld,hla uq¿,af,a isÿl< ilS%h fiajd jmißh ;=< ,enQ lS¾;skduh fya;= fldg f.k nj fkdryils'


ud rdcH wxYfha jeäu jdr .Kkla f.dv jQ wdh;khla we;akï th blAgdâ wdh;khhs' bÈlsÍï fCIa;%fha fndfyda fokdf.a w;aoelSu;a thuhs' ud úYajúoHd, YsIHfhla j isá wjêfha§ fCIa;%hg wod< f;dr;=re .fõIKh msKsi blAgdâ wdh;khg tAu mqreoaola ù ;sìKs' tys§ ud ÿgq .dïNSrnj yd;anj ;du;a u;lh' bxðfkare w¾,a uqKisxy hq.h" wdpd¾h y¾uka fldakarâ tÉ o ;sfiard hq.h" uydpd¾h ,CIuka o w,aúia hq.h" uydpd¾h ohka; úfÊfialr hq.h .ek tys fiajlhska l;d lrkafka uy;a wNsudkfhkah' yqÿ mqoa., fm!¾Ih mokï fldg .;A wNsudkkSh kdhl;Ajhla yryd tod fuod ;=r tu wdh;khg fndfyduhla jD;a;Shfõ§ka l< iqúi,A fufyjr w.h lruq' tfy;a" óg wjqreÿ y; wgl fõf,a mgka blAgdâ wdh;khg fikiqre tArdIaGlhla m;s; jkakg úh' fm;aiï" lg l;d lr,shg wdfhah' n|jd .ekSï yd Wiiaùï ms<sn| .eg¨ u;=jkakg úh' iqÿ fld<r jD;a;Sh jd*shdj ysi Tijkakg úh' foaYmd,k fykaphshka h,g uyg tk iNdm;sjre njg m;aúh' Pkaoh b,a,d merÿkq whg ls%hdldÍ wOHCI ;k;=re msßkeuqfKah' kvq yn we;sjqK' ú.Kk m%Yak u;= jkakg úh' wlalr yeg mylska hq;= .,al=<fï hkaf;da%mlrK mqyqKq mdif,a hka;% iQ;% Èrdm;a jkakg úh' wl=f¾f.dv mdf¾ iSg%ela wdh;khg;A yßyuka jev ms<sfj,la fkd;snqfkah' tys fkajdisld.drj, ,.skakg jQfjda foaYmd,k f.j,fhdah' l%u l%ufhka wOHCI mqgq ysia jkakg úh' m%Odk Y%jKd.drh fkdñf,A mj;Ajk foaYmd,k reiaùïj, f;da;ekAkla njg m;Aúh' tajdg iyNd.Sùug fiajlhskag wK ,eìK' fok fohla ld fjk w;la foi n,d isàu yer l< yels wka hula fiajlhskag fkdjQh' wld¾hCIu;djfhka Toao,a jQ jev ixialD;shla wjidkfha b;sß úh' ta wkqj blAgdâ  wdh;khg NdKavd.drfhka uqo,a ,enqfkA fyñysgh' wrmßiafiñkah' ;ukg Ôj;aùu msKsi iajdëkj ;ukAf.Au jev ms<sfj,lg hdug Wmfoia § ;snqKsa' jfrl NdKavd.drh úiska blAgdâ wdh;kh jid ouk f,i o ks¾foaY lr ;snQfhah' fulS miqìu ;+, kj mk;lA l,t<s neiaio th m%udKj;a ixjdohlg n÷kaù we;ehs uu fkdis;ñ'


fhdað; mk;ska WmfoaYk iNdjla" ixj¾Ok wêldßhla yd ixj¾Ok wruqo,la msysgqjkq we;' cd;sl bÈlsÍï m%:sm;a;shla ilia lsÍu tlS WmfoaYk iNdjg mejÍ we;s m%Odk j.lSuhs' cd;sl m%;sm;a;sh ieliSfï §" iïm%Þhdkql+, oekqu iys; iïm;a odhlhska we;=¿ bÈlsÍï l¾udka;fha jD;a;slhkaf.a iyNd.s;ajh wfmaËd lrhs' mk;g wkqj bÈlsÍï fCIa;%fha yjq,alrejkaag wkd.;hg hd fok Wml%ñl ÈYdj yÿkajd osh hq;af;a ;sylg wêl jQ tu fhdað; WmfoaYk iNdjghs' th l%shd;aul lsÍfï hdka;%kh ilia lsÍu;a fudjqkg Ndrù we;' fhdað; wêldßfha mßmd,k n,h úis fofkl=f.ka hq;a l<uKdlrK uKav,hla fj; mjrd we;'


fï jk úg o< foaYSh ksIamdÈ;h ;=< wdikakfhka 9] l w.hla f.k we;s bÈlsÍï jmißh ;=< bÈlsÍï kshdukh kue;s ldrKh mgka.kafka fldka;%d;alrejkaf.a ,shdmÈxÑfhka jqjo th m%drïNl wjia:djls' fldka;%d;alrefjla f,i blagdâ wdh;kfha ,shdmosxÑ ù isàu rdcH m%iïmdok fr.=,disj, wksjd¾hh jqjo tu .Kk iEu jirlu foody-fooyia foiShl msßila w;r foda,kh ùfuka .uH jkafka l=ulao@ tlaflda kjlhskag fCIa;%h ;=< /oS isáh fkdyel' ke;akï rdcH m%iïmdokh ;=< jHdmD;s ,nd .ekSug wjeis ,shdmÈxÑh t;rï j,x.= idOlhla fkdùuhs' tfia;a ke;skï úúO rdcH wdh;k ;ukag ßis fia jHdmD;s kshdukhl ksr; ù isák njhs' 


mk;g wkqj óg by;§ fldka;%d;alrejkag muKla iSud ù ;snQ ,shdmÈxÑh WmfoaYljrekaf.ka mgka f.k ksIamdolhska olajd jQ iemhqï cd,fha wka;su fldkgu m;=rejd,Su n,dfmdfrd;A;+ fjhs' tfy;A tkhska Wmhd .kakd úYd, uqo, fmr,d bÈlsÍï Wkak;sh fjkqfjka wdfhdackh jk wdldrh .ek l;d lrkafka m%;sY;j,ska muKs' Bg ysia ;ekla fh§fuka isÿjkafka wêldÍ n,h w;a;fkdau;sl f,i fhoùug we;s wjia:djla ks¾udKh lr.ekSuhs' oekgu;a fldka;%d;a ,shdmÈxÑ uqo,ska tod fõ, ißlr .kakd ;;a;Ajh yuqfõ;A bÈlsÍï wdrCIK wruqof,a tl;= ù we;s fldaá .Kkl uqo, fhoùu iïnkaOfhka fldka;%d;alrejka yuqfõ ;sfnk fkdikaiqka;dj yuqfõ;A fhdað; wruqof,a m%;s,dN bÈlsÍï md¾Yjlrejka fukau wjidkfha uyck;djg ,efnk úêu;a yd úksúoNdjfhka hq;= jevms<sfj,la we;sfõ fodahs hk ielh idOdrK h'  WmfoaYk iNdj fï .ek fidhd ne,Su jà'


fhojqï yd ksujqï w;r tl;=jk jákdlï ie<ls,a,g f.k cd;sl wd¾Ól m%;sm;a;suh ;Skaÿ ;SrK .ekSfï ls%hdj,sh i|yd bÈlsÍï o;a; nexl=jl wjYH;djhla mj;S' wuqøjH Y%u n,ldh" hka;% WmlrK yd tAjdfha ñ, WÉPdjpkhka jHdma;sh w;sßla;hka ixÑ;hka hkdÈh bÈlsÍï o;a; .Khg jefÜ' o;a; tAlrdYS lsÍu;a bka wk;=rej tAjdfha úYaf,aIKh yd w¾:l;kh i|yd úfYaI{;djh ,nd we;s ixLHd{hskaf.a fiajh w;HjYH fjkq we;' bÈlsÍï o;a; nexl=jla fhdackd ù ;snQfha óg wjqreÿ follg l<ska jqjo th ;ju;a ia:dms; lr .; fkdyels ù we;' tA i|yd jk m%fõYh b;d m%d:ñl uÜgul mej;Su Bg fya;=jhs'


bÈlsÍï fCIa;%fha jev ìï uÜgfï kshef,k Ys,amShkg yeÿkqïm;la fhduq lr Tjqkaj ,shdmÈxÑ lr ,Su b;du;au úYsIag mshjrls' f,dalfha fndfyduhla rgj, fï i|yd jD;a;shdNsuqL wOHdmkhla" mqyqKqjla yryd n,m;%hla ksl=;a lsÍfï jev ms<sfj,la we;' jd¾Isl ,shdmÈxÑhg fmr mqoa., ffjoH fhda.H;djh lsrd uek nef,hs' Tjqkaf.a fiajdjka ú.Kkhlg hg;a fjhs' bÈlsÍï mqyqKqlrejkaf.a ixÑ;hlA f.dvk.d .ekSu jeo.;ah' fojkqj foaYSh fukau úfoaYSh Y%u fj<|m, ;=< wjYH;djka i,ld n,d flfrk mqyqKq Y%ñl ixÑ;hla i|yd jk mdGud,d Èh;a l< yelsh' rg mqrd ,Ë 6lg wdikak msßila úisÍ isáh o wêldßhg imqrd .; yelafla oYu tllg;a wvq b,a¨ula ksid tA .ek fjfyi uykais ùfuka m,la ke;' jD;a;Sh mqyqKq wêldßh jeks tA i|yd lemjqkq wdh;khlg tu j.lSu mejÍu iqÿiq hehs uu fhdackd lrñ'


;jo" bÈlsÍï fCIa;%fha isÿjk Ôú; ydks jd¾;d jkafka yqol,dfõ jqjo Bg w.hla §ug lsisfjl=g;a kqmq¿jk' wOHdmkh" mqyqKqj" ffjoH fhda.H;djh" kS;sh yd j.lSï" f.dvke.s,s fCIa;%fha ms<s.;a iïuq;Ska o wdjrKh jk mßÈ jD;a;Sh ksmqK;djfhka hq;= hfula ksis f,i jD;a;Sh .; lrk cd;sl jev ms<sfj,l wjYH;djhla fï ;=<ska biau;= fõ' ;ud wNsudkj;a bÈlsÍï jevlrefjla nj okjkakg kï tA i|yd §m jHdma; l%uj;a hdka;%khla ilia úh hq;=h' fyd|u jevlre fidhd wNsfYAl me<Èh hq;af;a bka miqjhs' fï fjkqfjkA jvd;a idl,Huh jQ m%fõYhla i|yd wka wdh;k iu. w;A je,A ne| .; hq;+ fjhs'


B<. ldrKh kï" oekgu;a wod< jD;a;Sh ix.ïj, mámdáhg wu;rj ziqÿiqlï ,;AZ mqoa.,fhl= njg m;alsÍug wêldÍ n,hla fhdackd ù ;sîuhs' ,xldfõ m%:u j;djg hful= hï jD;a;ShlA ;=< iqÿiqlï ,eîu úksYaph lsÍfï n,hla fuu lñgqjg mejÍfï miqìu fyda ;¾lkh meyeÈ,s ke;' fuh ;j;a ys,a we;s l+vhla fj;Ao@ md¾,sfïka;= wK mk;a j,ska n,h ,nd § we;s jD;a;Sh ix.ïj, ls%hd mámdáh wNsnjd f.dia we;s fuu n,h jkdys tu jD;a;Sh ix.ïj,g lr we;s n,j;a wj;lafiarejla nj uf.a yeÕSuhs' bÈlsÍï fCIaa;%h ms<sno t;rï ixfõ§;djhla ke;s fndfyduhla mßmd,k ks<Odßkaf.a wêldÍ n,hg k;= fkdjk ;ekg j. n,d .ekSu bÈlsÍï fCIa;%fha jD;a;Shfõ§kaf.a j.lSula nj fuys,d mila lrkq leue;af;ñ'


bÈlsÍï m%ñ;slrKfha§ YS% ,xld m%ñ;s ld¾hdxYh uq¿ukskau wu;l lr we;' bÈlsÍï fCIa;%hg wod< oej j¾. 100lg wêl m%udKhlg m%ñ;s ilialr m%ldYhg m;a lr we;s ^;j WodyrK we;& tu ld¾hdxYfha Ys,amSh yd ;dCIK úfYaI{;dj Wlyd .ekSug jqjukd fkdjQfha ukaoehs uu fkdoksñ' tA tA m<d;a j,g wdfõKsl jQ wuqøjH Ys,am l%u hkdÈh mokï fldgf.k úfYaI b¢lsÍï msßú;r ms<sfh< l< yel' tAjd ir, f,i .fï isák ndia Wkakeye,g f;afrk NdIdfjka rEm igyka iys;j yÿkajd Èh hq;=h' jev ìñ uÜgñka bxðfkareuh lreKq ldrKd m%p,s; úh hq;=h' 


;j;A fkdfmkqk me;A;ls' tl .ul wvq ;rfï f.j,a fol ;=kla j;a yefok fï fudfydf;A Bg hï wd¾Ól úoHd;aul m%fõYhla ,nd .; yels kï th fl;rï w.fkao@ w¨;ska tl;= lrk" fjkia lrk yd w¨;ajeähd flfrk ksjdi .Kk Bg;a jeäh' tlaflda ksjerÈ ;lafiarejla fkdue;sj jev mgka .;a;d úh yelsh' ke;skï ;ud ;udf.a fmdleÜgqjg oeßh fkdyels jeä jev fldgilg w; .eiqjd úh yelsh' ke;akï uQ,sl ie<eiauu wd¾Óluh jYfhka M,odhS fkdjqkd úh yelsh' ;jo" ld,h" uqo," jev m%udKh yd wfmaCIs; .=Kd;aul nj ms<sn| wjfndaOh we;=<;a .súiqulska f;drj jev mgka .ekSu b;d m%lg lreKls' .súiqï .; fldka;%d;a;= olakg ,efnkafka l,d;=rlsks' ndf.g jev w;ru. oud jeämqr uqo,la  f.k mek hk jxpksl fldka;%d;alrejkaf.ka negldmq ffjoHjreo ug yuqù we;' tjka m%Yak i|yd ;dCIKsl fyda kS;suh w¾:l;khla ,nd §u o fndfyda úg wiSre fõ' cd;sl uÜgñka .;a l< th ñksia meh ñ,shk .Kkl kdia;shls' .súiqï ke;s jHdmD;s j, jákdlï cd;sl .sKqï o¾Ylhka ;=< o fmkakqï fkdlrhs'


b¢lsÍïj,§ mßirhg jeä w.hla ;eîu W;=ï mrd¾:ldó yd udkjjd§ .=Khls' mßir wd¾Ól úoHdfõ tk uQ,sl;u ;¾lh jkafka wo hfula Ôj;aj isáh§ úÈk mdßißl N+la;sh úiska wkd.; mrïmrdjg wys;la fkdfy,sh hq;= njhs' hï wys;la fkdje,elaúh yels kï th yels ;rï ÿrg nÿl%u yd fjk;a l%ufõohka Tiafia wka;ÍlrKhg Ndckh l< hq;= njhs' ck Wreuhg w; ;eîu j<lajd,sh hq;= njhs' oekg bÈfjñka mj;sk yd fhdað; uydud¾. jHdmD;Skag hg jk ck Wreuh ieg,hsÜ ;dCIKhg f.dapr fkdfõ' bÈlsÍï kshdukh ;=< ilH;d wOHhkhg uq,a ;ek .;a;o zlÜ wekaâ fmaiaÜZ wOHhk jd¾;d u.ska fy<s fkdjk fï iqúi,a udkj l;dka;rh iq¿ mgq fkdfõ' i;d isõmdjd" .y fld<" msßisÿ jd;h" c,h yd ire ìï fukau fldaÜ ixLHd; ck;dj;a yqiau by< my< .;a tu Wreuh midre lrf.k bÈjk uyd ud¾. jHdmD;s iïnkaOfhka wvq ;rfï mQ¾K uyck u; úuiqulgj;a u. t,s fmfy<s ke;s bÈlsÍï ixialD;shla .ek ljr l;do@ tjka ;;A;Ajhlg w; fmùug fhdað; mk;g Yla;shlA ke;sjdh'


,shdmÈxÑfhka ish,a, yudr fkdfõ' fCIa;%fha Wkak;sh fjkqfjka Tjqkaj /l n,d.ekSu;a wjYHhs' wo oji iuia;hla f,i fldka;%d;alrejka uqyqK mdk m%Yak w;r ;ukg jHdmdßlfhla f,i fCIa;%fha /Èhdj wúksYaÑ;h' uyd mßudK fldka;%d;alrejka w;f,diailg cd;sl wd¾Ólh ;=< cks; jk jeä jev fldgila fn§ hdu" m%udo ù flfrk f.ùï wdrCIl wemlr iïnkaOfhka iajdñjre w;r mj;sk wúYajikSh;ajh fï w;r fõ' úfYaIfhka" rcfhau wemlr rcfha wdh;k u.ska Ndr fkdf.k hk ;;A;ajhla u;=ù ;sfí' ;jo" id¾:l jHdmD;shlg uQ,slju wjYH kuHYS,s uqo,a ixirKhg ú,x.= neo ;nk tAl md¾Yúl fldka;%d;a .súiqï fldkafoais ;ju;a úrdcudkj mj;S' ;dCIKsl l%fudamdhka" wd¾Ól ;;ajh" ;rÕldß;ajhg iu.dój m%iïmdok l%fudamdhkao fjkia úh hq;=h' iïm%odhsl oaú md¾Yúl .Kqfokqjlg tyd .sh ld,h" uqo, fukau .=Kd;aul nj fma%rKh jk kj m%iïmdok l%ufõo y÷kd .ekSu ldf,daÑ;h'  


m%udK ióCIKh" ;dCIK ú.Kkh" ueÈy;alrKh" fldka;%d;a mßmd,kh" mYapd;a ld, rduq yd jeh úYaf,aIKh" m%iïmdok l%fudamdhka" ixLHdkh hk úIhhka .Kkdjla rdcH fiajh ;+, ;du;a b;d wvq ;lafiarejlg ,lalr we;' tAjdfha úoHd;aul jmißh f;areï f.k ke;' fhdok uqo,g Wmßu jákdlula ,nd .ekSu bÈlsÍï wd¾Ól úoHdfõ wruqKhs' m%Yak j,ska f;dr jHdmD;shl ksudjla oelSu fldka;%d;a mßmd,kfha wruqKhs' isÿjQ jerÈ kej;;a we;s fkdjk ;ekg j.n,d .ekSu miq úmrfï wruqKhs' WÞyrKhlg ú.Kkh yqÿ mYapd;a urK mÍCIKhlg muKla iSud ù we;' ol=Kq wêfõ.S jHdmD;sfha ,;a w;aoelSï fndfydah' ì,shk .Kkska fldka;%d;alrejka jeämqr uqo,a b,a,d isàu" th cd;Hka;r fíreïlrkhla olajd hdu fukau wfmaCId l< ld,h bl=;a ùu hkdÈh fï w;r fõ' fjk;a jHdmD;s iïnkaOfhka o tu ;;a;ajh jeä fjkila fkdfõ'


l=uk mßudKhl jHdmD;shla jqjo tys ld,h" úhou yd m%ñ;sh g wod,j wfmaCIs; b,lal imqrd .; fkdyelsjQ l, m%YakldÍ ;;a;Ajhla yg .ekSu fkdje<elaúh yelsh' ta wkqj" bÈlsÍï lghq;=j,g wod< wdrjq,a ksrjq,a lsÍu iy ta yd iïnkaê; fyda Bg ldrKd i|yd úêúOdk ie<eiaùu;A kj mkf;a tla wruqKla ù we;' ta yryd .súiqul wdrjq,a iïnkaOfhka ;Srljre f,i lghq;= lsßug iqÿiq ;eke;a;ka ,shdmÈxÑ lsÍu b;d jeo.;Ah' tfy;A th l< yelafla ;SrKlrKh rfÜ kS;s rduqjg tlaùSfuka miqjh' Bg fmr úoHd;aul yeoEÍula wjYHh' ;SrKlrKhg wod<j 27 fofkl= f.ka hq;= ixÑ;hla msysgjQfha o wjqreÿ follg l<ska h' ta blagdâ wdh;kh flakaø fldg' ;SrKlrKhg ,xldfõ kS;shla ke;;a cd;Hka;rj ms<s.;a l%ufõohkag wkqj wmg .e<fmk iïuq;shla fm< .iajd we;'


mkf;a ud olsk uQ,slu ,ËKh ,shdmÈxÑh i|yd bÈlsÍï iemhqï cd,h uq¿ukskau wdjrKh lr ;sîuhs' bka ,efnk iqúYd, uqo,A iïNdrhlska wruqo,la msysgqjd .ekSuhs' cïfnda WmfoaYk iNdjla yd wêldÍ l<ukdlrk uKav,hla we;s ùuhs' tfy;A mk; yryd foaYSh bÈlsÍï wdlD;sh ms<sn|j lsis bÕshla ,nd § ke;' tys ksYaÑ; yev ;,hla oelsug fkdyelsh' tfia jQfha tys ;=< mqk mqkd lshefjk wêldÍ n,h ksid úh hq;=h'


oeka l<hq;=j we;af;a blAgdâ wdh;kh iïnkaOfhka mq¿,a iÿw; wOHhkhla lsÍuhs' wdh;khla yeáhg i;= Yla;Ska" ÿ¾j,;djka" wjia:djka fukau ndOlo lsrd uek ne,Suhs' ish,a, leá fldg f.k ix.dhkdjla meje;aùuhs' wjYH udkj iïm;a tAl rdYS lr .ksñka tA tA úIhkays ksmqKhka ksis ;ek msysgqjd,Suhs' Wml%ñl jev ms<sfj,lg hduhs' th l=uk yevhla yd ÈYdjla .; hq;=o hkak ks¾Kh l< hq;af;a foaaYmd,kfhka f;drjQ wjHdc msßisÿ fÉ;kdfjkaah'


ud fuu igyka fm, ;enqfha hful= wiSre;djhg m;alssÍug fkdj bÈlsÍï kshdukh kue;s úIh udf.a jD;a;Sh miqìu;a iu. jvd;a f.dapr yd ixfõ§ úIhhla jQ neúks' ,smsh wjika lsÍug we,anÜ whskaiaghskaf.a jelshla wod, lr .ksñ' tlu foa lsysm j;djla lrñka fjkia m%;sm, n,dfmdfrd;a;= jkakd uq.aO .;s we;Af;ls' wdh;k iïnkaOfhkq;A ;;A;Ajh tfiauhs' tneúka hula flfrk ;ekg jev lrjd .ekSug kï lemùï l< yels msßila tal rdYS lr .; hq;=h' mk;ska wfmaCIs; wruqK bgq lrjd .; yelAflA wdl,amuh fjkila we;s lr .; yels kuHYS,s nqoaêu;=kaf.a odhl;ajfhkA muKs' tA i|yd oekgu;a mj;sk kS;s rduqj" n,;," jrm%ido" myiqlï m%udKj;a nj uf.a yeÕSuhs' wjYHj we;af;a jev ms<sfj,la muKs' fuu lreKq kj weu;s;=udf.A ks;s wjOdkhg fhduqfõjdhs m;ñ'

Baiyala and Toiyala

nhsh,d iy fgdhsh,d

wdpd¾h pkaok ch,;A


úu,a ùrjxY  ysgmq weu;s;+ud úiska uE;loS l< m%ldYhla yßu wmQreh' Bg wkqj Tyq nhsfhls' úmCIfha isákafka fgdhsh,dh' nhsh,d yd fgdhsh,d fof.d,a, tl;=ù rg lk yeá l;d lf<a óg jir y;,sia mylg fmr frdayK úfÊùr ifydaorhdh' tod fuod ;+r jeäfhkau l;d nyg ,la jQ ud;Dldj o ld,h jeäfhkau ld oeuQ ud;Dldj jQfhao foaYmd,khhs' ;=mamys foaYmd,kh" wrdðl foaYmd,kh" .e,ßfha foaYmd,kh hkdoSs jYfhkA tys ijNdjh u;+ lr,Sug úúO kdu úfYaIK mo fhdod .kAkg o úh'  wm ,;a Bkshd ksoyfia múgq M, úmdl w;r rfÜ foaYmd,k whs;sh mjq,a lSmhla w;g hdu meyeos,sh' bkaÈhdjg" nx.,sfoaYhg fukau ,xldjgo tu uv f.dfydrefjka tf;r ùug yelshdjla ke;' md¾,sfïka;=fõ Ndf.g Nd.hlau bkafka kEhskah' md¾,sfïka;=fõ Ndf.g Nd.hla Wiia fm< o wiu;ah' md¾,sfïka;= wkq lñgq .Kkdjla wl¾ukHj mj;sk nj;a Bg fya;=j md¾,sfïka;=jg h,g uyg tk uka;S%jre ksid nj o lshejqKs'

m<d;a iNdj fldaÉÑh w,a,d .kakg fydo ;S%ù,rhla n÷h' m%dfoaYSh iNdj jkaokd kvhls' mq¿ mq¿jka úÈhg Pkao álla tl;= lr.ekSu Tjqkaf.a wruqKhs' u< f.j,a" odk udk" i,ams,a" f;drka" fmryerj,a m%dfoaYSh iNdjgh' m;aùï m%odkhka m<d;a iNdj,gh' tod wOHdmk wOHCI úiska ,shdmÈxÑ ;emEf,ka hjkq ,nk .=re m;aùu wo jk úg iq.;odi .Dyia; lS%vdx.kfha mj;ajkq ,nk f,dl= foaYmd,k ieKfl<shls' Èidm;s;=ud úiska tjk ,o Tmamqj wo uka;S%;=ud w;skau Èh hq;=h' fmdÿ jeisls,shla újD; l<;a l;dj TÉprh' ish,a, foaYmd,kSlrKh ù yudrh' iuia: rdcH wxYhu ¥m;a udkisl;ajfhka yd jD;a;sh ud*shdfjka fj,' lsis jev ms<sfj,la ke;sj y;r wf;a jefkk fndfyduhla wdh;kj, wo b;sßj we;Af;A foaYmd,k ixo¾Yk fm<ls'

tfy;A fudjqka f.A foaYmd,k ú{dkh meyeÈ,s jkafka rEmjdyskshla bÈßmsg l;d lrkakg wjia:djla ,enqk úgh' iqÿ yqKq .Eu" tlsfkld msg lid .ekSu yd fudk fudkjd fyda m,ayE,s álla fodvd ldg yß uvmdrla yeÍu yer .; hq;= hula tys ke;' mqj;am;a yeullau;A tAjdfha bvlv j,ska y;frka ;=klau foAYmd,k m;aùï .=á neg yd tlsfkldg tfrysj flfrk wj,do i|yd fjkaù we;' udOHlrejka Tjqka msgqmi ynd f.dia Tjqkag wkjYH jákdlï imhñka m%;srEm f.dvk.d,Sfï ld¾hhg o uq,aù we;'

wo rEmjdyskS kd,sldj, flfrk we;eï foaYmd,k .=áfl,sj,ska fmkS hkafka fudjqkaf.a ;=kAfjks mdka;sl nj fkdfõo@ .e,ß .;sh fkdfõo@ ;dkdm;sjrekag myr fok wëCIK uka;S%jre" ókSurk fyda ñksuereï iïnkaOfhkA jl%j fyda pQos;hska njg m;ajqk uka;%Sjre" ia;S% ¥Ilhska yd jxpkslhska" isiq wr., j,g f.dia wÜgd, j,g .sks ;nk uka;S%jre" úÿy,am;sjrekg ;u foaYmd,k ys;j;=kaf.a orejka we;=<;a lr.kakd f,i n,mEï lrk uka;S%jre" mdf¾ uy oj,a fmd,sish;a biair lr.ksñka ish¨u ud¾. kS;s W,a,x>kh lrñka w;s Odjkhl fhfok uka;S%jre" iuDoaê ks,OdÍka .ia n¢k uka;S%jre" rcfha ks,OdÍkag mreI jpkfhka nek jÈk uka;%Sjre" j,;A; mq;%hska cd;l l< j,;A; uka;%Sjre hkd§ fulS fkdlS uka;S%jre 225 la md¾,sfïka;=fõ isá;s' 437lA m<d;a iNdj, isá;s' 3524 la m%dfoaYSh iNdj, isá;s'

wkqmd;hla f,i .;a l< ck;djf.ka iEu 4900 lgu tla uka;S%jrfhla issá;s' fuu iqÿ w,s mrïmrdj kv;a;= lsÍu i|yd jirlg jeh flfrk remsh,a fldaá .Kkls' fudjqka N=la;s ú|sk úfoaY pdßld" nÿ rys; jdyk iy wksl==;a jrm%ido .;a l< tu .Kk fo.=k f;.=Khls' tl me;A;lska foaYmd,kh l;d lrkakg hEfuka wm cd;shla yeáhg jirl ñksia meh fldaá wgla muK kdia;slr .ks;s' ue;sjrKhla toa§ remssh,a fldaá.KklA kdia;s lr;s' uqo,ska ñ, l< fkdyels mßir ¥IKhla we;slr .ks;s' cd;sl jmqr;ss' wjia:d lsysmhloSu  rfÜ ;reKhska oi oyia .Kklf.A urKh ;SrKh lf<Ao  nhsh,d iy fgdhsh,dh' fjka lr y÷kd .; fkdyels ;rugu nhsh,d iy fgdhsh,d me;s udre lrf.k l,jï ù we;'

nhsh,d iy fgdhsh,d fu;=jla l,A l< ymkalï fndfyduhla ksidfjka ck;dj kej;;A uxuq,d ù isá;s' ñkSuereï" uxfld,a, lEï" ia;%S ¥IK yd jxpd bhjy f.diskah' wld¾HCIu;djfhka Toao,a jqkq jev ixialD;shla wm yuqfõ we;' iuia;hla yeáhg úkh ms<sn| f,dl= .eg¨jla wm bosßfha we;' ud¾. úkh wka;suh' foaYmd,k{fhda mdf¾ hk úg wks;A ñksiaiqkag ldKq m,A,g nyskakg isÿù we;' fm!oa.,sl nia r: Odjkh .ek;a tfyuuhs' ;jo" kS;sfhA ijdêm;Hh /l.ekSu iïnkaOfhka isú,A iudch ;+, mj;sk wúYajikSh;Ajh ;j ÿrg;A reiaik iq¿ fohla fkdjkq we;' fldákau iuia; iudc ikao¾Nfhau msßySula we;' fï wkqj fndfyduhla foa iïnkaOfhka iqNjd§j olskak W;aidy l< o bka M,la ke;s j. fmkS hhs'

lreKq tfia fyhska" iuia; foaYmd,k ;ka;%h msßmyÿjlg ,lal< hq;=j we;' foaYmd,k nv iqoaohla w;HjYHh' ta i|yd l,a h,a n,ñka isàfï M,la ke;' oekaj;A fï mv;A;r foaYmd,Khg jeg lvqM ;nuq'

Winning the Cross-Frontiers

cd;Hka;rh ch .ekSug kïæ
ysgmq úfoaY wud;H .re ,CIuka lÈr.du¾ uy;df.a >d;kh;aa iu. t,a'à'à'B' ixúOdkh hqfrdamd fldñiu ;+, ;ykï jQfha jir 2006 §h' l%u l%ufhka rgj,A 32la Bg tlaù ;snqKs' bka jir 8lg miqj tkï Tlaf;daïn¾ 16 Èk hqfrdamd wêlrKh úiska tlS ;yku bj;a lsÍfï ;Skaÿj hqfrdamd fldñiug oekajQfha tu ;ykug ,lalsÍfï§ wkq.ukh l< l%ufõoh ;dCIKsl jYfhka fodaI iys; tlla nj lshdmdñks' kS;sfhka kshu lr we;s wdldrhg iDcq úu¾Ykhla lsÍfuka f;drj yqÿ mqj;a m;a yd wka;¾ cd, jd¾;d mokï lr f.k tu ;yku mkjd we;s nj lshdmdñks' fuu fm;aiu bÈßm;a l< t,a'à'à'B' ys;jd§ka mejiqfõ ish ixúOdkh hqfrdamd ix.ufha ;%ia; úfrdaë kS;s moaO;shg hg;a fkdjk njhs' tA wkqj tu rgj, t,a'à'à'B ixúOdkfha ls%hdldß;ajhg bv ,efnkq we;' tfy;a t,a'à'à'B ixúOdkh i;= j;alï iïnkaOfhka mkjd ;snQ kS;suh ndOl ;jÿrg;a ls%hd;aul w;r wod< ;Skaÿjg tfrys wNshdpkhla bosßm;a lsÍug udi foll ld, mrdihlao m%ldYhg m;aflßKs' oekA l< hq;Af;A rgla yeáhg B,ï u;jdoh cd;Hka;rh ;=< mrdch lsÍu ms<sn|j úpdrd;Aulj úuid ne,Suhs' Bg rdcH ;dka;s%l jYfhka .;a wdhdih fln÷o hkAk lsrd uek ne,Suhs' ld,hla uq¿,af,a l< lS oE yd isÿjQ oE wkqj th ;SrKh l< yels jkq we;'
by;ska i|yka l< ;Skaÿj;a iu. fldá ys;jd§ oñ< vhiafmdardj ;ek ;ek k,shkakg mgka f.k we;s w;r th fnÿïjdofha ch.%yKhla nj wleue;Af;ka jqjo wmg ms,s.ekSug isÿj we;' f.da,Sh fou< ixioh úiska ixl%uKsl B<dï rdcHh kñka ;djld,sl wdKavqjlao ilia lrñka isà' óg wu;rj ;j;a ixúOdk /ilao msysgqjd f.k ;sfí' wjika .egqfï§ hqO wmrdO isÿjqjdh hk fpdaokdj u; tlai;a cd;Skaf.a udkj ysñlï ljqkais,h úiska fhdckdjla o iïu; lrf.k ;sfí' f.da,Sh fou< ixioh miq.shod ì%;dkHfhka b,a,Sula lrñka lshd isáfha YS% ,xld wdKavqj fou< vhiafmdard lKavdhï 16la u; mkjd we;s ;yku tlai;a cd;Skaf.a wdrCIl uKav,fha§ idlÉPdjg .kakd f,ih' th idlÉPdjg .kakd f,i b,a,Sula lsÍuu Tjqkaf.a ;j;a bÈß mshjrls' lf<l wefußldj úiska úfYaI f.da,Sh ;%ia; ixúOdkhla úiska kï lr ;snQ t,a'à'à'B' ixúOdkh jir 30la uq¿,af,a l< iuQy ñksia >d;k /,af,a ñf,aÉP;ajh ´kElñk`au wu;l lr oud we;' fï w;r ,nk ud¾;=fõ ðkSjd udkj ysñlï jd¾;dj t<shg taug kshñ;h' ffu;%S n,hg tkafka fï N+ñldj ;+,h'
wo f,dalh fjkodg jvd lsÜgqh' bka ú;ekaù flfrk hï ldrKdjla ufkdardðlh' j;auka tlai;a cd;Skaf.a ls%hdldß;ajh iu. tl.ùu ÿIalr jqjo tA fjkqfjka rchla yeáhg ;sìh hq;= jevms<sfj, l=ulao hkak meyeÈ,s lr .; hq;+h' tod ;kdm;s fiajh .re .dñNSrjQ;a" rdcH ;dka;s%ljQ;a" Wml%ujd§jQ;a fkdneÈ ms<sfj;la yryd ñ;%YS,s mokul msysgd isg l< .Kqfokqjls' ;dkdm;sf.a ld¾hNdrh NdrOQr tlla úh' rg fjkqfjka ksfhdackh jk m<uq mqrjeishd ;dkdm;s;=udh' rdcH ;dka;s%l uÜgfï ryia .kqfokq" .súiqï" iïuq;Ska hkdÈfha iïnkaëldrl Tyqh' tA i|yd lD;yia; núka mßmQ¾K hq. mqreIhska tod isáfhah' kjish ye;a; ;=fka§ fidaúhÜ iuQydKavqfõ YS% ,xld ;dkdm;s;=ud jQfha .=Kmd, u<,fialr kïjQ lS¾;su;a wOHdmk{hdh' wdpd¾h j¾kka fuKaäia" n¾kdâ ;s,lr;ak" ú,afyï fjdag¾ia" chka; Okmd," fhdaf.akaø ÿf¾Idñ' tÉ'tï'Ô'tia m,sylaldr" wdpd¾h iqika; o w,aúia jekakjqka wo me;a; m<d;lj;a ke;' wo ;dkdm;sjre ìysjkafka yuqod fiajfha È.=jla yeáhgh' ke;akï kEoElula mokï' th jydu keje;aúh hq;=h' l=ÿ uy;a ,dxlsh ;dkdm;s fiajh kej;;a ;lafiarejlg ,lal< hq;= jkafka tksidh'
,xldj ngysr kHdh m;%h mfil ;eîug;A jvd cd;Hka;rfha fjku lojqrla fj; .d,a fjñka ;sîu ;j;a fya;=jla jqj;a fï ;;A;ajh hï ;rula ÿrg fyda md,kh lr.ekSug ;snqK wjia:dj ,xldfõ úfoaY fiajh b;d fkdie<ls,su;a f,i w;miq lr oeuqfõh' ,xldj iïnkaOfhka f,dal u;h fjkia lsÍu i|yd fldá vhia fmdardj b;d ixúOdkd;aulj iy iqCIu f,i f.k .sh wkjr; igk yÿkd .ksñka rdcH ;dka;%sl f,i lghq;= l< úfoaY fiajfha ks,OdÍka wl¾ukH lr oeóu ,xldj lr.;a h<s ksjerÈ l< fkdyels je/oaols' tys m%;sM, ,efnñka ;sìh§ mjd mgq wruqKq Tiafia lghq;= lrk wd;la md;la ke;s kkak;a;dr foaYmd,{hka wdrCId lrk ms<sfj;g f.dia úfoaY fiajh ldndiskshd lsÍfï fldka;d%;a;=j bgqlsÍu jydu k;r l< hq;= fudfyd; meñK we;' iuyr rdcH ;dka;s%l ks,OdÍka ksis ;ekaj, ia:dk .; fkdlsÍfï mdm l¾ufha m< úmdl oeka oeka oefkkakg mgka.kq we;'
l< hq;+j we;Af;A ìu jeà we;s cd;Hka;r hIaáh kej; wyq<d .ekSuhs' ta i|yd mqoa., idOlhg jvd jeo.;A jkafka rchla yeáhg .kakd jQ m%fõYhhs' tys idl,Huh njhs' th fldf;la ÿrg fõ.j;Ao hkakhs' rdcH ;dka;s%l núka mßmQ¾Ko hkakhs'